• Issue
    Volume 598, Issue 3
    267-376
    February 2024

Issue Information

Free Access

Front Cover

  • Pages: 267-268
  • First Published: 13 February 2024
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Cover illustration The cover image, generated with the assistance of AI, refers to Villegas et al. ‘DAYWAKE implicates novel roles for circulating lipid-binding proteins as extracerebral regulators of daytime wake–sleep behavior’.

Review

Neuroscience

Free Access

From synaptic dysfunction to atypical emotional processing in autism

  • Pages: 269-282
  • First Published: 17 January 2024
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social impairments and repetitive behaviors, often accompanied by pronounced emotional complexities, including elevated anxiety rates. This review explores ASD's intricate relationship with atypical emotional processing, utilizing diverse animal models. Beyond altered sensory processing, we examine the contributions of altered threat processing and altered interoception. These multifaceted alterations may contribute to atypical phobias, prevalent anxiety disorders within this population.

Research Articles

Editor's Choice

Membrane trafficking, vesicles, organelle

Reprogramming nucleolar size by genetic perturbation of the extranuclear Rab GTPases Ypt6 and Ypt32

  • Pages: 283-301
  • First Published: 23 November 2023
Description unavailable

Perturbation of genes encoding factors functioning in the nucleus and secretory pathway led to opposite effects on nucleolar size in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate evidence for reversing nucleolar hypertrophy by employing these two classes of mutations and the plausible involvement of Maf1 (the negative regulator of RNA polymerase III) in the process. Our study provides a prospective approach to reprogram the altered nucleolar size phenotype, a common feature of diseased cells.

Signal transduction

Open Access

CRK and NCK adaptors may functionally overlap in zebrafish neurodevelopment, as indicated by common binding partners and overlapping expression patterns

  • Pages: 302-320
  • First Published: 06 December 2023
Description unavailable

This study finds CRK and NCK adaptors overlap in their neuronal expression during zebrafish development. It also finds CRK and NCK adaptors share common SH2 and SH3 binding partners from a neuronal cell line. Common binding partners include proteins critical for cell motility and adhesion. Together, these data suggest CRK and NCK adaptors can play overlapping roles in neurodevelopment.

Research Letters

Neuroscience

Open Access

DAYWAKE implicates novel roles for circulating lipid-binding proteins as extracerebral regulators of daytime wake–sleep behavior

  • Pages: 321-330
  • First Published: 19 December 2023
Description unavailable

Drosophila daywake (dyw) is the first anti-siesta gene discovered. As in humans, key wake–sleep centers in Drosophila are found in the brain. Surprisingly, we show that the DYW protein, which belongs to the tubular lipid-binding protein (TULIP) superfamily, is not detected in the brain but accumulates in multiple organs and is secreted into the circulatory system, suggesting a novel signaling pathway for regulating wake–sleep balance.

Development

Open Access

Expression of the Wolbachia male-killing factor Oscar impairs dosage compensation in lepidopteran embryos

  • Pages: 331-337
  • First Published: 20 November 2023
Description unavailable

Bacteria of the Wolbachia wFur strain induce male killing in the insect Ostrinia furnacalis by targeting the Masc protein required for both masculinization and dosage compensation. Oscar is the wFur male-killing factor that inhibits masculinization and induces male killing in lepidopteran insects. Here, we showed that the ectopic expression of Oscar can mimic male killing in both O. furnacalis and Bombyx mori embryos by disrupting dosage compensation.

Bioenergetics

Open Access

Human mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 functions as a metabolite transporter

  • Pages: 338-346
  • First Published: 06 December 2023
Description unavailable

We show that recombinant human uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), refolded and reconstituted into liposomes, efficiently transports aspartate and malate, and, to a lesser extent, phosphate and sulphate. Unlike UCP2, UCP3 cannot catalyse unidirectional substrate transport and exhibits an approximately sevenfold higher transport affinity for aspartate compared with UCP2. The R282Q mutation in the sixth α-helix completely abolishes the transport activity of UCP3.

Research Article

Metabolism

Open Access

Apolipoprotein E isoforms and their Cys-thiol modifications impact LRP1-mediated metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

  • Pages: 347-362
  • First Published: 27 January 2024
Description unavailable

The current study offers a novel perspective on the physiological role of apolipoprotein (apo) E in lipid metabolism. The redox status of Cys-thiol in the apoE molecule significantly influences lipoprotein metabolism via the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1. Our findings are instrumental in understanding the pathology of various apoE-related diseases, including various atherosclerotic diseases and Alzheimer's disease.

Research Letter

Structural Biology

Mapping secondary substrate-binding sites on the GH11 xylanase from Bacillus subtilis

  • Pages: 363-376
  • First Published: 22 January 2024
Description unavailable

Ligand binding to secondary binding sites modulates GH11 endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity towards hemicellulose. In this study, predicted substrate binding to the active site (light gray) and two product-binding subsites (light blue and yellow) of the Bacillus subtilis enzyme were confirmed experimentally. This understanding of GH11 regulation has implications for the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for the circular economy.