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The content of isolet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in isolated rat pancreatic islets was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that a main peak of IAPP immunoreactivity in the extracts from the islets corresponded to a synthetic rat IAPP. Secretion of IAPP from the cells is regulated by the extracellular glucose concentration. Thus, IAPP may be a novel regulator for glucose homeostasis and changes in the secretion perhaps relate to insular amyloid deposits and impaired glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetes mellitus.